The amorality of Web 2.0

This post, along with seventy-eight others, is collected in the book Utopia Is Creepy.

From the start, the World Wide Web has been a vessel of quasi-religious longing. And why not? For those seeking to transcend the physical world, the Web presents a readymade Promised Land. On the Internet, we’re all bodiless, symbols speaking to symbols in symbols. The early texts of Web metaphysics, many written by thinkers associated with or influenced by the post-60s New Age movement, are rich with a sense of impending spiritual release; they describe the passage into the cyber world as a process of personal and communal unshackling, a journey that frees us from traditional constraints on our intelligence, our communities, our meager physical selves. We become free-floating netizens in a more enlightened, almost angelic, realm.

But as the Web matured during the late 1990s, the dreams of a digital awakening went unfulfilled. The Net turned out to be more about commerce than consciousness, more a mall than a commune. And when the new millenium arrived, it brought not a new age but a dispiritingly commonplace popping of a bubble of earthly greed. Somewhere along the way, the moneychangers had taken over the temple. The Internet had transformed many things, but it had not transformed us. We were the same as ever.

The New New Age

But the yearning for a higher consciousness didn’t burst with the bubble. Web 1.0 may have turned out to be spiritual vaporware, but now we have the hyper-hyped upgrade: Web 2.0. In a profile of Internet savant Tim O’Reilly in the current issue of Wired, Steven Levy writes that “the idea of collective consciousness is becoming manifest in the Internet.” He quotes O’Reilly: “The Internet today is so much an echo of what we were talking about at [New Age HQ] Esalen in the ’70s – except we didn’t know it would be technology-mediated.” Levy then asks, “Could it be that the Internet – or what O’Reilly calls Web 2.0 – is really the successor to the human potential movement?”

Levy’s article appears in the afterglow of Kevin Kelly’s sweeping “We Are the Web” in Wired’s August issue. Kelly, erstwhile prophet of the Long Boom, surveys the development of the World Wide Web, from the Netscape IPO ten years ago, and concludes that it has become a “magic window” that provides a “spookily godlike” perspective on existence. “I doubt angels have a better view of humanity,” he writes.

But that’s only the beginning. In the future, according to Kelly, the Web will grant us not only the vision of gods but also their power. The Web is becoming “the OS for a megacomputer that encompasses the Internet, all its services, all peripheral chips and affiliated devices from scanners to satellites, and the billions of human minds entangled in this global network. This gargantuan Machine already exists in a primitive form. In the coming decade, it will evolve into an integral extension not only of our senses and bodies but our minds … We will live inside this thing.”

The revelation continues:

There is only one time in the history of each planet when its inhabitants first wire up its innumerable parts to make one large Machine. Later that Machine may run faster, but there is only one time when it is born.

You and I are alive at this moment.

We should marvel, but people alive at such times usually don’t. Every few centuries, the steady march of change meets a discontinuity, and history hinges on that moment. We look back on those pivotal eras and wonder what it would have been like to be alive then. Confucius, Zoroaster, Buddha, and the latter Jewish patriarchs lived in the same historical era, an inflection point known as the axial age of religion. Few world religions were born after this time. Similarly, the great personalities converging upon the American Revolution and the geniuses who commingled during the invention of modern science in the 17th century mark additional axial phases in the short history of our civilization.

Three thousand years from now, when keen minds review the past, I believe that our ancient time, here at the cusp of the third millennium, will be seen as another such era. In the years roughly coincidental with the Netscape IPO, humans began animating inert objects with tiny slivers of intelligence, connecting them into a global field, and linking their own minds into a single thing. This will be recognized as the largest, most complex, and most surprising event on the planet. Weaving nerves out of glass and radio waves, our species began wiring up all regions, all processes, all facts and notions into a grand network. From this embryonic neural net was born a collaborative interface for our civilization, a sensing, cognitive device with power that exceeded any previous invention. The Machine provided a new way of thinking (perfect search, total recall) and a new mind for an old species. It was the Beginning.

This isn’t the language of exposition. It’s the language of rapture.

The Cult of the Amateur

Now, lest you dismiss me as a mere cynic, if not a fallen angel, let me make clear that I’m all for seeking transcendence, whether it’s by going to church or living in a hut in the woods or sitting at the feet of the Maharishi or gazing into the glittering pixels of an LCD screen. One gathers one’s manna where one finds it. And if there’s a higher consciousness to be found, then by all means let’s get elevated. My problem is this: When we view the Web in religious terms, when we imbue it with our personal yearning for transcendence, we can no longer see it objectively. By necessity, we have to look at the Internet as a moral force, not as a simple collection of inanimate hardware and software. No decent person wants to worship an amoral conglomeration of technology.

And so all the things that Web 2.0 represents – participation, collectivism, virtual communities, amateurism – become unarguably good things, things to be nurtured and applauded, emblems of progress toward a more enlightened state. But is it really so? Is there a counterargument to be made? Might, on balance, the practical effect of Web 2.0 on society and culture be bad, not good? To see Web 2.0 as a moral force is to turn a deaf ear to such questions.

Let me bring the discussion down to a brass tack. If you read anything about Web 2.0, you’ll inevitably find praise heaped upon Wikipedia as a glorious manifestation of “the age of participation.” Wikipedia is an open-source encyclopedia; anyone who wants to contribute can add an entry or edit an existing one. O’Reilly, in a new essay on Web 2.0, says that Wikipedia marks “a profound change in the dynamics of content creation” – a leap beyond the Web 1.0 model of Britannica Online. To Kevin Kelly, Wikipedia shows how the Web is allowing us to pool our individual brains into a great collective mind. It’s a harbinger of the Machine.

In theory, Wikipedia is a beautiful thing – it has to be a beautiful thing if the Web is leading us to a higher consciousness. In reality, though, Wikipedia isn’t very good at all. Certainly, it’s useful – I regularly consult it to get a quick gloss on a subject. But at a factual level it’s unreliable, and the writing is often appalling. I wouldn’t depend on it as a source, and I certainly wouldn’t recommend it to a student writing a research paper.

Take, for instance, this section from Wikipedia’s biography of Bill Gates, excerpted verbatim:

Gates married Melinda French on January 1, 1994. They have three children, Jennifer Katharine Gates (born April 26, 1996), Rory John Gates (born May 23, 1999) and Phoebe Adele Gates (born September 14, 2002).

In 1994, Gates acquired the Codex Leicester, a collection of writings by Leonardo da Vinci; as of 2003 it was on display at the Seattle Art Museum.

In 1997, Gates was the victim of a bizarre extortion plot by Chicago resident Adam Quinn Pletcher. Gates testified at the subsequent trial. Pletcher was convicted and sentenced in July 1998 to six years in prison. In February 1998 Gates was attacked by Noël Godin with a cream pie. In July 2005, he solicited the services of famed lawyer Hesham Foda.

According to Forbes, Gates contributed money to the 2004 presidential campaign of George W. Bush. According to the Center for Responsive Politics, Gates is cited as having contributed at least $33,335 to over 50 political campaigns during the 2004 election cycle.

Excuse me for stating the obvious, but this is garbage, an incoherent hodge-podge of dubious factoids (who the heck is “famed lawyer Hesham Foda”?) that adds up to something far less than the sum of its parts.

Here’s Wikipedia on Jane Fonda’s life, again excerpted verbatim:

Her nickname as a youth—Lady Jane—was one she reportedly disliked. She traveled to Communist Russia in 1964 and was impressed by the people, who welcomed her warmly as Henry’s daughter. In the mid-1960s she bought a farm outside of Paris, had it renovated and personally started a garden. She visited Andy Warhol’s Factory in 1966. About her 1971 Oscar win, her father Henry said: “How in hell would you like to have been in this business as long as I and have one of your kids win an Oscar before you do?” Jane was on the cover of Life magazine, March 29, 1968.

While early she had grown both distant from and critical of her father for much of her young life, in 1980, she bought the play “On Golden Pond” for the purpose of acting alongside her father—hoping he might win the Oscar that had eluded him throughout his career. He won, and when she accepted the Oscar on his behalf, she said it was “the happiest night of my life.” Director and first husband Roger Vadim once said about her: “Living with Jane was difficult in the beginning … she had so many, how do you say, ‘bachelor habits.’ Too much organization. Time is her enemy. She cannot relax. Always there is something to do.” Vadim also said, “There is also in Jane a basic wish to carry things to the limit.”

This is worse than bad, and it is, unfortunately, representative of the slipshod quality of much of Wikipedia. Remember, this emanation of collective intelligence is not just a couple of months old. It’s been around for nearly five years and has been worked over by many thousands of diligent contributors. At this point, it seems fair to ask exactly when the intelligence in “collective intelligence” will begin to manifest itself. When will the great Wikipedia get good? Or is “good” an old-fashioned concept that doesn’t apply to emergent phenomena like communal on-line encyclopedias?

The promoters of Web 2.0 venerate the amateur and distrust the professional. We see it in their unalloyed praise of Wikipedia, and we see it in their worship of open-source software and myriad other examples of democratic creativity. Perhaps nowhere, though, is their love of amateurism so apparent as in their promotion of blogging as an alternative to what they call “the mainstream media.” Here’s O’Reilly: “While mainstream media may see individual blogs as competitors, what is really unnerving is that the competition is with the blogosphere as a whole. This is not just a competition between sites, but a competition between business models. The world of Web 2.0 is also the world of what Dan Gillmor calls ‘we, the media,’ a world in which ‘the former audience,’ not a few people in a back room, decides what’s important.”

I’m all for blogs and blogging. (I’m writing this, ain’t I?) But I’m not blind to the limitations and the flaws of the blogosphere – its superficiality, its emphasis on opinion over reporting, its echolalia, its tendency to reinforce rather than challenge ideological extremism and segregation. Now, all the same criticisms can (and should) be hurled at segments of the mainstream media. And yet, at its best, the mainstream media is able to do things that are different from – and, yes, more important than – what bloggers can do. Those despised “people in a back room” can fund in-depth reporting and research. They can underwrite projects that can take months or years to reach fruition – or that may fail altogether. They can hire and pay talented people who would not be able to survive as sole proprietors on the Internet. They can employ editors and proofreaders and other unsung protectors of quality work. They can place, with equal weight, opposing ideologies on the same page. Forced to choose between reading blogs and subscribing to, say, the New York Times, the Financial Times, the Atlantic, and the Economist, I will choose the latter. I will take the professionals over the amateurs.

But I don’t want to be forced to make that choice.

Scary Economics

And so, having gone on for so long, I at long last come to my point. The Internet is changing the economics of creative work – or, to put it more broadly, the economics of culture – and it’s doing it in a way that may well restrict rather than expand our choices. Wikipedia might be a pale shadow of the Britannica, but because it’s created by amateurs rather than professionals, it’s free. And free trumps quality all the time. So what happens to those poor saps who write encyclopedias for a living? They wither and die. The same thing happens when blogs and other free on-line content go up against old-fashioned newspapers and magazines. Of course the mainstream media sees the blogosphere as a competitor. It is a competitor. And, given the economics of the competition, it may well turn out to be a superior competitor. The layoffs we’ve recently seen at major newspapers may just be the beginning, and those layoffs should be cause not for self-satisfied snickering but for despair. Implicit in the ecstatic visions of Web 2.0 is the hegemony of the amateur. I for one can’t imagine anything more frightening.

In “We Are the Web,” Kelly writes that “because of the ease of creation and dissemination, online culture is the culture.” I hope he’s wrong, but I fear he’s right – or will come to be right.

Like it or not, Web 2.0, like Web 1.0, is amoral. It’s a set of technologies – a machine, not a Machine – that alters the forms and economics of production and consumption. It doesn’t care whether its consequences are good or bad. It doesn’t care whether it brings us to a higher consciousness or a lower one. It doesn’t care whether it burnishes our culture or dulls it. It doesn’t care whether it leads us into a golden age or a dark one. So let’s can the millenialist rhetoric and see the thing for what it is, not what we wish it would be.

193 thoughts on “The amorality of Web 2.0

  1. the pod bay door


    .: I’ve been home from NYC for six days, and am still recovering from a minor cold I picked up late in the trip. I stayed home for three days, missing Access 2005, which from all accounts from my colleagues with whom I spoke on Thursday, totall…

  2. bodnotbod

    For the record, this is the complete Jane Fonda article at Wikipedia as existed on 25th September 2005, the last form of the article I can guarantee was not fixed up as a result of this blog entry.

    Readers will find additional content of a very different quality to that characterised in the blog entry above.

    Here’s the entry for Bill Gates as appeared in its entirity prior to the blog entry:

    Which I agree is appalling.

    It should be noted, however, that both Bill Gates (to a massive degree) and Jane Fonda (to a lesser) are figures that cause above average amounts of controversy and, therefore, those articles are particularly prone to bad faith edits by people seeking to denigrate the subjects.

  3. Mark Murphy

    When will the great Wikipedia get good?

    It used to be that cathedrals would take decades to build. Nowadays, using modern engineering, an equivalently-sized structure takes much less time. Does that mean that, five years into the construction of a cathedral, “when will the great cathedral get good” is a valid question? Nobody’s attempted something of the scale of Wikipedia before; hence, nobody can clearly state exactly how long it will take to reach what any individual decides is “good”. I imagine the first edition of Britannica took more than five years as well.

    And yet, at its best, the mainstream media is able to do things that are different from – and, yes, more important than – what bloggers can do.

    Agreed. However, any individual element of the mainstream media (single newspaper, single TV news program, etc.) has much more influencing power than does any individual blog or other “amateur” content provider. Hence, to paraphrase an old nursery rhyme, “when mainstream media is good, it is very very good, but when it is bad it is horrid”. Sensationalism predates blogs. Passing opinion off as news (e.g., Sinclair Communications’ forced broadcasts) predates blogs. And when the mainstream media does these things, it causes much more harm to society than when individual bloggers practice sensationalism or passing opinion off as news.

    And free trumps quality all the time.

    You cited various news sources you like, such as the New York Times. Last I checked, such news sources are not free. Yet, you have access to any number of news sources that are free: over-the-air television, radio, free newspapers (most US communities have at least one of these; major metros may have a few), membership-controlled magazines (the ones you get the free subscription to in exchange for completing a survey), and so forth. Yet, you continue to pay for certain news sources. In fact, it would appear that lots of people have paid for certain news sources for decades despite the availability of free ones. I mean, I like blogs, but you’re giving them way too much credit if you think that they somehow will destroy things that have, in theory, been under attack since WWII.

    Implicit in the ecstatic visions of Web 2.0 is the hegemony of the amateur. I for one can’t imagine anything more frightening.

    Please understand that, for many of us, the current hegemony of the professional is fairly frightening. You’ve portrayed here a dystopian future with the “amateur” being in control. How many more dystopian futures have been depicted, in opinion pieces and fiction, where authorities and professionals, such as the government, are in control? Which do you think is the more likely outcome? We’re just trying to provide some competitive balance.

    And, of course, I posted this on my blog…

  4. Josef Schneider

    Yeah, that wonderful bastion of accuracy and fact-checking, The New York Times. Sure, they “can place, with equal weight, opposing ideologies on the same page.” But they don’t. See their witch-hunt of Wen Ho Lee and Jason Blair. Judith Miller’s reporting on weapons of mass destruction in Iraq were every bit as slipshod as the Wikipedia entry on Jane Fonda. But the Times criminally sloppy “journalism” led the country into an unnessesary and unjustifiable war.

  5. Mike's Points

    The Rise of & Problem with CJ

    A couple stories in the “Joplin (Mo.) Globe” and The Age (Melbourne, Australia) about citizen journalism raise some very good points about the growth of it, and benefits of it. However, just like recent quality issues have crept up at…

  6. Christopher Michael

    I use wikipedia in my capacity as a philosopher, and I find it just fine. It seems the more serious the topic, the more seriously it is taken – as it should be. Let the ‘professionals’ sweat the mundane details of trivial topics – sorry, that was redundant.

  7. laurence haughton

    Lots of good points but a couple of nits.

    1)“And free trumps quality all the time.” Really? I like to see enough examples to even justify saying “some of the time.”

    That whole Britannica example is written without any understanding of the root causes of the encyclopedia’s failures as a profitable business… such as not listening to their customers.

    2) The same is true when you ask will “the economic pressures caused by the web will in the end make [the] shortcomings of the MSM even worse.” These “economic pressures” are a self inflicted wound.

    The advertising client / MSM business model has deep flaws that the media refused to address for decades. That’s the root cause of the economic pressures.

  8. Smart Mobs

    Wikipedia as bottom-up disruption

    Earlier this month, Nicholas Carr posted a criticism of Wikipedia, blogosphere, and Web 2.0 fanatics, warning that they are being carried away by an emotional attachment to the concept and losing sight of objective quality issues: Implicit in the ecsta…

  9. Crossroads Dispatches

    An Internet Fed Mostly by Amateurs is Fascinating

    I don’t want to read blogs by political extremists, listen to podcasts recorded by droning amateurs, or watch videos produced by talentless would-be directors – even though the Internet makes all that possible. I want to get my news from

  10. Dennis Howlett

    I don’t have a problem with Nicholas’ general thesis. This is a first as I thought his ‘IT Doesn’t Matter’ stuff was bordering on the insane.

    There is a very real risk that when a technology trend takes on the whiff of cult status, there’s going to be a falling out somewhere along the way and a lot of well-meaning people will get hurt.

    The fact that hype seems to be spiralling out of control is a very bad thing. The last thing this industry needs is another dotbomb bust. But it could easily happen. And here I’m with Blodget when he says Google is a one trick pony at risk of any ad spending downturn.

    Which as far as I’m concerned is great. Because an ad model, which is tempting so many wannabe blog/hacks, will weed out the crap pretty quickly. Which is just as well because the noise level coming from the BS merchants is getting unbearable.

    But none of this should take away from the sterling efforts made by the OSS community. Heck, a lot of this discussion would never see the light of day without it. And that, and when it’s intelligent, considered discussion, instead of a tirade of demeaning abuse, is a good thing.

    In the end however, no amount of brickbat throwing will take away from the fact that Carr has influence. He does not lose any of his kudos by putting himself up for the literary battering he’s taken from some commentators. If anything, his presence encourages debate in which he is gracious.

    But who’s to say he’s wrong – other than those who derive a living from peddling their own skewed view of the world? Like me. Like all the other correspondents to this posting. Except on this occasion, I believe Carr’s words should serve as a salutary warning about how things can go pear-shaped – in even the most good meaning of environments.

  11. Tarina

    Other side of the coin: Web 2.0

    In all the excitement and rapture of Web 2.0 and the interesting qualities of Open Source and Pro-amateurs we need to take one step backwards and look at these issues with critical eyes.

    I had just read some stuff about technological singularity, how…

  12. IPcentral Weblog

    Telling It Like It Is!

    Today’s TechCentralStation has good comments on a couple of my biases — the hostility toward the market expressed by many academics, and the juvenility of much contemporary policy debate (the two phenomena are not unrelated). On academics, Arnold Klin…

  13. Gabbahead

    I prefer to think of the web as information anarchism, not a democracy. The reason why we can fit ideas of enlightenment and capitalism is because the web ultimately is dictated by neither – it accomodates both. In a democratic system there still needto be rules, but there is no overall constitution dictating the web’s behaviour; neither doI think there should be.

    I love Wikipedia, but it is flawed. Yet at the same time the web has also illustrated how inaccurate traditional media can be. In the end everything has a downside and the web is holding upa mirror so we can start seeing some of these problems. I don’t think Wikipedia is very factual, but I dount Britannica is giving me all the information there is on a topic.

    Is the web perfect? Not at all, but it is chaotic and that makes it a pretty unique concept. And in this uniqueness it can accomodate a lot of things: laws, lawlessness, quantity, quality, fanaticism and apathy. These do not even need to be tied together.

    I believe the web’s chaotic and anarchic character makes it a complete wild card in terms of human existence. Don’t worship it – it really doesn’t care. It’s essentially an entity made out of a collective and an accidental entity at that.

    Web 2.0 is a foolish pipe dream. It might make sense, but the beast has already been unleashed and it’s growing at an amazing rate. Even when the 2.0 technologies really come into play, don’t think they will harnass the web. The web will accomodate them. It’s not a dogmatic view: this is the nature of an information network that draws from a large pool of unrelated information and participation. Men can barely run their countries – how do you run a technology that fuels itself off all men?

  14. Blogruf

    Web 2.0: Die soziale Komponente

    Im Netz tobt eine kleine Schlammschlacht um die Bedeutung von Web 2.0.

    Phil Klein hat ein “Web 2.0 Manifesto” verfasst:

    […] 10. Web 2.0 is community knowledge networks

    – where what you know is shared easily

    – where no one is a bott…

  15. XenoFocus

    A critical eye towards Web 2.0

    You may have heard the term Web 2.0 by now. If you’re reading this site, you are certainly witnessing it. New methods of creating and transmitting content is changing the face of the web. Examples such as wikis, feeds, and the “blogosphere” have become

  16. Common Sense and Wonder

    The Education of Gesture

    Robert McHenry bemoans the adolescentization of culture and politics. Cognitive scientists are generally agreed that one of the most important faculties of the human brain…

  17. dennis

    Wikipedia is really a rather primitive application, and Web 2.0 is early days yet. Give it another thirty years, and we’re liable to see much more sophisticated systems, that do a better job of aggregating collective judgement and creativity. Web 9.0 will probably look much different than anything people envision today.

  18. The Original Blog

    Web 2.0: old Kool-Aid in new bottles

    How silly is the thinking behind the Web 2.0 movement? Try We Are the Web by Wellbert Kevin Kelly:

    There is only one time in the history of each planet when its inhabitants first wire up its innumerable parts to make one large Machine. Later that Ma…

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